- A healthy diet is essential to good health.
- Multiple factors influence people’s diet choices, including food environment, social, economic, and behavioral factors.
- A recent study found that access to groceries and fast food, education level and income influence fruit and vegetable consumption and obesity levels.
Balanced diets are an essential part of a healthy lifestyle. Researchers are still discovering factors that contribute to dietary choices.
A recent observational study was published in
The authors concluded that these factors have different levels of influence among different sectors of the population.
A healthy diet is critical to good health. While experts are constantly evaluating best nutritional practices, there are many general components of a healthy diet.
- Five servings or 400 grams of fruits and vegetables per day
- Legumes, nuts and whole grains
- Limited amounts of fat
- Limited amounts of added sugar
Different people have different nutritional needs. It may be helpful to speak with a doctor or dietitian to develop appropriate meal plans.
Researchers are constantly trying to understand the factors that influence people’s food choices. Then, it is possible to modify these factors to direct people toward healthier food choices.
Investigating food choices can be complex; Study author Tim Althoff explained to Medical news today:
“Studying diets is challenging and often limited to small sample sizes, individual locations, and people remembering what they ate. This has made it difficult to compare diets across the United States and has led to mixed results on the impact of the food environment.”
Multiple factors influence food choices, including cultural backgrounds and lifestyles. Environmental factors also affect people’s diet, including their access to healthy or unhealthy food choices.
This study sought to examine how the following factors affect people’s weight, their consumption of fruits and vegetables, fast food and soft drink consumption.
- Access to groceries
- Access to fast food restaurants
- education level
- income level
Scientists used a smartphone app’s food logs to study food choices in a large and diverse sample size. The study included 1,164,926 participants from across the United States. The authors collected data over a 7-year period.
Tim Althoff explained the benefits of this data collection method to MNT:
This study reinforces the fact that many people take detailed notes about their diets through smartphone apps. We studied 2.3 billion smartphone food records across more than 9,800 US ZIP codes and demonstrated that this data can be used to study diet across populations.”
The authors compared their study population with nationally representative survey data. They collected demographic and socioeconomic factors from the Census Reporter.
In general, scientists have found that higher education levels, increased access to groceries, and reduced access to fast food have links with:
- Eat more fruits and vegetables
- Eat less soda and fast food
- Decreased prevalence of obesity and overweight
Next, the scientists evaluated the impact of each of these factors among white, black, and Hispanic populations, individually. Correlations varied slightly between these groups.
For example, researchers found that higher income levels were associated with lower consumption of fruits and vegetables, greater obesity, and higher consumption of fast food among the black population.
However, they found that higher levels of education and greater access to groceries correlate with higher consumption of fruits and vegetables.
In contrast, higher income levels among the Hispanic population increased the intake of fruits and vegetables. The associations were weaker among the white population.
The authors explain their findings regarding access to the grocery store:
“[H]Access to large grocery stores is significantly associated with higher fruit and vegetable consumption at postal codes with a predominantly Hispanic (7.4% difference) and black (10.2% difference) population in contrast to predominantly white postal codes (1.7% difference). “
Educational levels influenced healthy food choices in all groups. Higher education is associated with increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and lower levels of obesity.
Study has limitations. Because of the nature of the study, the researchers were unable to establish a causal relationship between the factors they examined. The data collected relied on self-reporting through the mobile application, which could lead to inaccuracies.
The authors also recognize that their sample was an underrepresentation of the US population. Their sample was influenced by who was more likely to use the app, usually women and people with higher incomes.
Note Tim Althoff to MNT “Data from smartphone apps can have serious limitations in terms of their biases and quality. Our study provides a comprehensive validation of this data.” [correlate highly] With methods that are in line with the gold standards in this field.”
He continued, “However, they are more scalable, and an exciting implication of research is that these methods can enable public health research at an unprecedented scale and detail.”
For the future, the authors hope that scientists will conduct more longitudinal studies than cross-sectional studies and include more data at the individual level.
Overall, the study suggests that improving people’s access to food and increasing education can help people make healthier food choices. But the focus of interventions and the plan may need to change in specific subpopulations.